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One of the most anticipated moments for most players at any RPG table is combat. It is the moment when strategies thought for more than a week emerge, where new powers and skills are put into practice and tested in the best possible way: at risk of life!
Combat is one of the pillars of Runarcana, alongside interpretation and exploration. Although it is the most valued by a large portion of the players, it is also where the vast majority have their disappointments or confirmations of not being as strong as they imagined.
The combat rules aim to bring a mediation between the interpretation of the acts of both the players and their opponents, bringing a neutral field where good ideas and interpretation can define a fight... if the sovereign dices so wish.
- 1 The Order of Combat
- 2 Movement and Position
- 3 Actions in Combat
- 4 Making an Attack
- 4.1 Attack Rolls
- 4.2 Unseen Attackers and Targets
- 4.3 Ranged Attacks
- 4.4 Melee Attacks
- 5 Cover
- 6 Damage and Healing
- 6.1 Hit Points
- 6.2 Damage Rolls
- 6.3 Damage Types
- 6.4 Absorption, Immunity, Resistance, and Vulnerability
- 6.5 Healing
- 6.6 Dropping to 0 Hit Points
- 6.7 Knocking a Creature Out
- 6.8 Temporary Hit Points
- 7 Mounted Combat
- 8 Underwater Combat
The Order of Combat
A typical combat encounter is a clash between two sides, a flurry of weapon swings, feints, parries, footwork, and spellcasting. The game organizes the chaos of combat into a cycle of rounds and turns. A round represents about 6 seconds in the game world. During a round, each participant in a battle takes a turn. The order of turns is determined at the beginning of a combat encounter when everyone rolls initiative. Once everyone has taken a turn, the fight continues to the next round if neither side has defeated the other.
Combat Step by Step
- Determine surprise. The GM determines whether anyone involved in the combat encounter is surprised.
- Establish positions. The GM decides where all the characters and creatures are located. Given the adventurers’ marching order or their stated positions in the room or other location, the GM figures out where the adversaries are - how far away and in what direction.
- Roll initiative. Everyone involved in the combat encounter rolls initiative, determining the order of combatants’ turns.
- Take turns. Each participant in the battle takes a turn in initiative order.
- Begin the next round. When everyone involved in the combat has had a turn, the round ends. Repeat step 4 until the fighting stops.
A band of adventurers sneaks up on a bandit camp, springing from the trees to attack them. A xer’sai runs throughout the sand of the Great Sai, unnoticed by the adventurers until it is too late. In these situations, one side of the battle gains surprise over the other.
The GM determines who might be surprised. If neither side tries to be stealthy, they automatically notice each other. Otherwise, the GM compares the Stealth checks of anyone hiding with the passive Perception score of each creature on the opposing side. Any character or creature that doesn’t notice a threat is surprised at the start of the encounter.
If you’re surprised, you can’t move or take an action on your first turn of the combat, and you can’t take a reaction until that turn ends. A member of a group can be surprised even if the other members aren’t.
Initiative determines the order of turns during combat. When combat starts, every participant makes a Dexterity check to determine their place in the initiative order. The GM makes one roll for an entire group of identical creatures, so each member of the group acts simultaneously
The GM ranks the combatants in order from the one with the highest Dexterity check total to the one with the lowest. This is the order (called the initiative order) in which they act during each round. The initiative order remains the same from round to round.
If a tie occurs, the GM decides the order among tied GM-controlled creatures, and the players decide the order among their tied characters. The GM can decide the order if the tie is between a creature and a player character. Optionally, the GM can have the tied characters and creatures each roll a d20 to determine the order, highest roll going first.
On your turn, you can move a distance up to your speed and take one action. You decide whether to move first or take your action first. Your speed — sometimes called your walking speed — is noted on your character sheet.
The most common actions you can take are described in the “Actions in Combat” section. Many class features and other abilities provide additional options for your action. The “Movement and Position” section gives the rules for your move.
You can forgo moving, taking an action, or doing anything at all on your turn. If you can’t decide what to do on your turn, consider taking the Dodge or Ready action, as described in “Actions in Combat.”
There are some activities that do not require any large amount of time to perform, speak, stop the concentration of a spell, drop an item, throw yourself on the floor, perform a gesture that will not directly affect the objects and characters around you or even use a rune.
During a round, in or out of your turn, you can declare to your GM that you are using a free action to perform a specific action. Most runes use a free action to be used.
A GM can set a limit on the number of free actions you can take in a round, after all, you will not be able to deliver a speech designed to encourage your allies within a period of just 6 seconds.
Various class features, spells, and other abilities let you take an additional action on your turn called a bonus action. The Cunning Action feature, for example, allows a Mercurial to take a bonus action. You can take a bonus action only when a special ability, spell, or other feature of the game states that you can do something as a bonus action. You otherwise don’t have a bonus action to take.
You can take only one bonus action on your turn, so you must choose which bonus action to use when you have more than one available.
You choose when to take a bonus action during your turn, unless the bonus action’s timing is specified, and anything that deprives you of your ability to take actions also prevents you from taking a bonus action.
Other Activity on Your Turn
Your turn can include a variety of flourishes that require neither your action nor your move.
You can communicate whenever you are able, through brief utterances and gestures, as you take your turn.
You can also interact with one object or feature of the environment for free, during either your move or your action. For example, you could open a door during your move as you stride toward a foe, or you could draw your weapon as part of the same action you use to attack.
If you want to interact with a second object, you need to use your action. Some magic items and other special objects always require an action to use, as stated in their descriptions.
The GM might require you to use an action for any of these activities when it needs special care or when it presents an unusual obstacle. For instance, the GM could reasonably expect you to use an action to open a stuck door or turn a crank to lower a drawbridge.
Certain special abilities, spells, and situations allow you to take a special action called a reaction. A reaction is an instant response to a trigger of some kind, which can occur on your turn or on someone else’s. The opportunity attack is the most common type of reaction.
When you take a reaction, you can’t take another one until the start of your next turn. If the reaction interrupts another creature’s turn, that creature can continue its turn right after the reaction.
Movement and Position
In combat, characters and monsters are in constant motion, often using movement and position to gain the upper hand.
On your turn, you can move a distance up to your speed. You can use as much or as little of your speed as you like on your turn, following the rules here.
Your movement can include jumping, climbing, and swimming. These different modes of movement can be combined with walking, or they can constitute your entire move. However you’re moving, you deduct the distance of each part of your move from your speed until it is used up or until you are done moving.
Breaking Up Your Move
You can break up your movement on your turn, using some of your speed before and after your action. For example, if you have a speed of 30 feet, you can move 10 feet, take your action, and then move 20 feet.
Moving Between Attacks
If you take an action that includes more than one weapon attack, you can break up your movement even further by moving between those attacks. For example, a fighter who can make two attacks with the Extra Attack feature and who has a speed of 25 feet could move 10 feet, make an attack, move 15 feet, and then attack again.
Using Different Speeds
If you have more than one speed, such as your walking speed and a flying speed, you can switch back and forth between your speeds during your move. Whenever you switch, subtract the distance you’ve already moved from the new speed. The result determines how much farther you can move. If the result is 0 or less, you can’t use the new speed during the current move.
For example, if you have a speed of 30 and a flying speed of 60 because an arcane cast the fly spell on you, you could fly 20 feet, then walk 10 feet, and then leap into the air to fly 30 feet more.
Combat rarely takes place in bare rooms or on featureless plains. Boulder-strewn caverns, briar-choked forests, treacherous staircases — the setting of a typical fight contains difficult terrain.
Every foot of movement in difficult terrain costs 1 extra foot. This rule is true even if multiple things in a space count as difficult terrain. Low furniture, rubble, undergrowth, steep stairs, snow, and shallow bogs are examples of difficult terrain. The space of another creature, whether hostile or not, also counts as difficult terrain.
Combatants often find themselves lying on the ground, either because they are knocked down or because they throw themselves down. In the game, they are prone, a condition described in Appendix PH-A.
You can drop prone without using any of your speed. Standing up takes more effort; doing so costs an amount of movement equal to half your speed. For example, if your speed is 30 feet, you must spend 15 feet of movement to stand up. You can’t stand up if you don’t have enough movement left or if your speed is 0.
To move while prone, you must crawl or use magic such as teleportation. Every foot of movement while crawling costs 1 extra foot. Crawling 1 foot in difficult terrain, therefore, costs 3 feet of movement.
MMoving Around Other Creatures
You can move through a nonhostile creature’s space. In contrast, you can move through a hostile creature’s space only if the creature is at least two sizes larger or smaller than you. Remember that another creature’s space is difficult terrain for you.
Whether a creature is a friend or an enemy, you can’t willingly end your move in its space. If you leave a hostile creature’s reach during your move, you provoke an opportunity attack.
Interacting with Objects Around You
Here are a few examples of the sorts of things you can do in tandem with your movement and action:
Flying creatures enjoy many benefits of mobility, but they must also deal with the danger of falling. If a flying creature is knocked prone, has its speed reduced to 0, or is otherwise deprived of the ability to move, the creature falls, unless it has the ability to hover or it is being held aloft by magic, such as by the fly spell.
Each creature takes up a different amount of space. The Size Categories table shows how much space a creature of a particular size controls in combat. Objects sometimes use the same size categories.
|Tiny||2,5 feet per 2,5 feet|
|Small||5 feet per 5 feet|
|Medium||5 feet per 5 feet|
|Large||10 feet per 10 feet|
|Huge||15 feet per 15 feet|
|Gargantuan||20 feet per 20 feet or larger|
A creature’s space is the area in feet that it effectively controls in combat, not an expression of its physical dimensions. A typical Medium creature isn’t 5 feet wide, for example, but it does control a space that wide. If a Medium humanoid stands in a 5-foot-wide doorway, other creatures can’t get through unless the humanoid lets them.
A creature’s space also reflects the area it needs to fight effectively. For that reason, there’s a limit to the number of creatures that can surround another creature in combat. Assuming Medium combatants, eight creatures can fit in a 5-foot radius around another one.
Because larger creatures take up more space, fewer of them can surround a creature. If five Large creatures crowd around a Medium or smaller one, there’s little room for anyone else. In contrast, as many as twenty Medium creatures can surround a Gargantuan one.
Squeezing into a Smaller Space
A creature can squeeze through a space that is large enough for a creature one size smaller than it. Thus, a Large creature can squeeze through a passage that’s only 5 feet wide. While squeezing through a certain space, a creature must spend 1 extra foot for every foot it moves there, and it has disadvantage on attack rolls and Dexterity saving throws. Attack rolls against the creature have advantage while it’s in the smaller space.
Actions in Combat
When you take your action on your turn, you can take one of the actions presented here, an action you gained from your class or a special feature, or an action that you improvise. Many monsters have action options of their own in their stat blocks. When you describe an action not detailed elsewhere in the rules, the GM tells you whether that action is possible and what kind of roll you need to make, if any, to determine success or failure.
You can lend your aid to another creature in the completion of a task. When you take the Help action, the creature you aid gains advantage on the next ability check it makes to perform the task you are helping with, provided that it makes the check before the start of your next turn.
Alternatively, you can aid a friendly creature in attacking a creature within 5 feet of you. You feint, distract the target, or in some other way team up to make your ally’s attack more effective. If your ally attacks the target before your next turn, the first attack roll is made with advantage.
The most common action to take in combat is the Attack action, whether you are swinging a sword, firing an arrow from a bow, or brawling with your fists.
With this action, you make one melee or ranged attack. See the “Making an Attack” section for the rules that govern attacks.
Certain features, such as the Extra Attack feature of the fighter, allow you to make more than one attack with this action.
Cast a Spell
Spellcasters such as wizards and clerics, as well as many monsters, have access to spells and can use them to great effect in combat. Each spell has a casting time, which specifies whether the caster must use an action, a reaction, minutes, or even hours to cast the spell. Casting a spell is, therefore, not necessarily an action. Most spells do have a casting time of 1 action, so a spellcaster often uses his or her action in combat to cast such a spell.
If you take the Disengage action, your movement doesn’t provoke opportunity attacks for the rest of the turn.
When you take the Dash action, you gain extra movement for the current turn. The increase equals your speed, after applying any modifiers. With a speed of 30 feet, for example, you can move up to 60 feet on your turn if you dash.
Any increase or decrease to your speed changes this additional movement by the same amount. If your speed of 30 feet is reduced to 15 feet, for instance, you can move up to 30 feet this turn if you dash.
When you take the Hide action, you make a Stealth check in an attempt to hide, following the rules for hiding. If you succeed, you gain certain benefits, as described in the “Unseen Attackers and Targets” section.
When you take the Dodge action, you focus entirely on avoiding attacks. Until the start of your next turn, any attack roll made against you has disadvantage if you can see the attacker, and you make Dexterity saving throws with advantage. You lose this benefit if you are Incapacitated (as explained in Appendix A) or if your speed drops to 0.
Sometimes you want to get the jump on a foe or wait for a particular circumstance before you act. To do so, you can take the Ready action on your turn, which lets you act using your reaction before the start of your next turn.
First, you decide what perceivable circumstance will trigger your reaction. Then, you choose the action you will take in response to that trigger, or you choose to move up to your speed in response to it. Examples include “If the cultist steps on the trapdoor, I’ll pull the lever that opens it,” and “If the enemy steps next to me, I move away.”
When the trigger occurs, you can either take your reaction right after the trigger finishes or ignore the trigger. Remember that you can take only one reaction per round.
When you ready a spell, you cast it as normal but hold its energy, which you release with your reaction when the trigger occurs. To be readied, a spell must have a casting time of 1 action, and holding onto the spell’s magic requires concentration. If your concentration is broken, the spell dissipates without taking effect. For example, if you are concentrating on the web spell and ready magic missile, your web spell ends, and if you take damage before you release magic missile with your reaction, your concentration might be broken.
When you take the Search action, you devote your attention to finding something. Depending on the nature of your search, the GM might have you make a Perception check or an Investigation check.
Use an Object
You normally interact with an object while doing something else, such as when you draw a sword as part of an attack. When an object requires your action for its use, you take the Use an Object action. This action is also useful when you want to interact with more than one object on your turn.
Making an Attack
Whether you’re striking with a melee weapon, firing a weapon at range, or making an attack roll as part of a spell, an attack has a simple structure.
- Choose a target. Pick a target within your attack’s range: a creature, an object, or a location.
- Determine modifiers. The GM determines whether the target has cover and whether you have advantage or disadvantage against the target. In addition, spells, special abilities, and other effects can apply penalties or bonuses to your attack roll.
- Resolve the attack. You make the attack roll. On a hit, you roll the damage, unless the particular attack has rules that specify otherwise. Some attacks cause special effects in addition to or instead of damage.
If there’s ever any question whether something you’re doing counts as an attack, the rule is simple: if you’re making an attack roll, you’re making an attack.
When you make an attack, your attack roll determines whether the attack hits or misses. To make an attack roll, roll a d20 and add the appropriate modifiers. If the total of the roll plus modifiers equals or exceeds the target’s Armor Class (AC), the attack hits. The AC of a character is determined at character creation, whereas the AC of a monster is in its stat block.
Modifiers to the Roll
When a character makes an attack roll, the two most common modifiers to the roll are an ability modifier and the character’s proficiency bonus. When a monster makes an attack roll, it uses whatever modifier is provided in its stat block.
- Ability Modifier. The ability modifier used for a melee weapon attack is Strength, and the ability modifier used for a ranged weapon attack is Dexterity. Weapons that have the finesse or thrown property break this rule.
- Some spells also require an attack roll. The ability modifier used for a spell attack depends on the spellcasting ability of the spellcaster
- Proficiency Bonus. You add your proficiency bonus to your attack roll when you attack using a weapon with which you have proficiency, as well as when you attack with a spell.
Rolling 1 or 20
Sometimes fate blesses or curses a combatant, causing the novice to hit and the veteran to miss.
If the d20 roll for an attack is a 20, the attack hits regardless of any modifiers or the target’s AC. This is called a critical hit.
If the d20 roll for an attack is a 1, the attack misses regardless of any modifiers or the target’s AC.
Unseen Attackers and Targets
Combatants often try to escape their foes’ notice by hiding, casting the invisibility spell, or lurking in the darkness.
When you attack a target that you can’t see, you have disadvantage on the attack roll. This is true whether you’re guessing the target’s location or you’re targeting a creature you can hear but not see. If the target isn’t in the location you targeted, you automatically miss, but the GM typically just says that the attack missed, not whether you guessed the target’s location correctly.
When a creature can’t see you, you have advantage on attack rolls against it. If you are hidden—both unseen and unheard—when you make an attack, you give away your location when the attack hits or misses.
When you make a ranged attack, you fire a bow or a crossbow, hurl a handaxe, or otherwise send projectiles to strike a foe at a distance. A monster might shoot spines from its tail. Many spells also involve making a ranged attack.
You can make ranged attacks only against targets within a specified range.
If a ranged attack, such as one made with a spell, has a single range, you can’t attack a target beyond this range.
Some ranged attacks, such as those made with a longbow or a shortbow, have two ranges. The smaller number is the normal range, and the larger number is the long range. Your attack roll has disadvantage when your target is beyond the normal range, and you can’t attack a target beyond the long range.
Ranged Attacks in Close Combat
Aiming a ranged attack is more difficult when a foe is next to you. When you make a ranged attack with a weapon, a spell, or some other means, you have disadvantage on the attack roll if you are within 5 feet of a hostile creature who can see you and who isn’t incapacitated.
Used in hand-to-hand combat, a melee attack allows you to attack a foe within your reach. A melee attack typically uses a handheld weapon such as a sword, a warhammer, or an axe. A typical creature makes a melee attack when it strikes with its claws, horns, teeth, tentacles, or other body parts. A few spells also involve making a melee attack.
Most creatures have a 5-foot reach and can thus attack targets within 5 feet of them when making a melee attack. Certain creatures (typically those larger than Medium) have melee attacks with a greater reach than 5 feet, as noted in their descriptions.
Instead of using a weapon to make a melee weapon attack, you can use an unarmed strike: a punch, kick, head-butt, or similar forceful blow (none of which count as weapons). On a hit, an unarmed strike deals bludgeoning damage equal to 1 + your Strength modifier. You are proficient with your unarmed strikes.
In a fight, everyone is constantly watching for a chance to strike an enemy who is fleeing or passing by. Such a strike is called an opportunity attack.
You can make an opportunity attack when a hostile creature that you can see moves out of your reach. To make the opportunity attack, you use your reaction to make one melee attack against the provoking creature. The attack occurs right before the creature leaves your reach.
You can avoid provoking an opportunity attack by taking the Disengage action. You also don’t provoke an opportunity attack when you teleport or when someone or something moves you without using your movement, action, or reaction. For example, you don’t provoke an opportunity attack if an explosion hurls you out of a foe’s reach or if gravity causes you to fall past an enemy.
When you take the Attack action and attack with a light melee weapon that you’re holding in one hand, you can use a bonus action to attack with a different light melee weapon that you’re holding in the other hand. You don’t add your ability modifier to the damage of the bonus attack unless that modifier is negative.
If either weapon has the thrown property, you can throw the weapon instead of making a melee attack with it.
Some creatures and Origins may have more than two upper limbs, when this happens, it is necessary to define which half of these members will be dominant members.
To fight with more than two weapons, it is necessary to have additional members. With this, the creature can use its bonus action to attack with all of its secondary weapons, however, for each additional weapon possessed beyond the 2nd, all attack rolls receive -2 in attacks made with this bonus action.
When acquiring the Ambidextrous Enhancement, for every 2 weapons the creature is wielding, the penalty for its attacks becomes -1 for each attack beyond the second, it additionally receives +1 AC (this bonus is not added to the Enhancement). This Enhancement can be acquired more than once, receiving the bonus as follows:
- 1st Ambidextrous: -1 for each attack after the second and +1 AC.
- 2nd Ambidextrous: -1 for each attack after the second and +2 AC.
- 3rd Ambidextrous: -1 for each attack after the second and +3 AC.
- 4th Ambidextrous: -1 for each attack after the second and +4 AC.
Additional Shields. In some cases, it is possible for a creature to choose to use more than one shield, benefiting its defense with additional members. In such cases, she may benefit from the AC bonus of these shields. However, if one of these shields is a heavy or turret shield, she will not be able to make any attacks or use another shield using her members who are on the same side as these shields. In addition, your attacks will have a disadvantage and a -3 penalty for each additional shield in addition to the 1st.
Additional Two Hand Weapons. In addition to using melee weapons, it is possible for a creature with multiple limbs to use more than one two-handed weapon. In such cases, when making an attack with one of two hands, for every two members in addition to the first two she has, she can use her bonus action to perform an additional attack with each of her two-handed weapons for each weapon. additional two hands you have in addition to the 1st, you have -2 to all attack rolls for your attacks made with this bonus action.
When you want to grab a creature or wrestle with it, you can use the Attack action to make a special melee attack, a grapple. If you’re able to make multiple attacks with the Attack action, this attack replaces one of them.
The target of your grapple must be no more than one size larger than you and must be within your reach. Using at least one free hand, you try to seize the target by making a grapple check instead of an attack roll: an Athletics check contested by the target’s Athletics or Acrobatics check (the target chooses the ability to use). The check will be succeeded if the target is Incapacitated. If you succeed, you subject the target to the grappled condition (see Appendix A). The condition specifies the things that end it, and you can release the target whenever you like (no action required).
Escaping a Grapple. A grappled creature can use its action to escape. To do so, it must succeed on an Athletics or Acrobatics check contested by your Athletics check.
Moving a Grappled Creature. When you move, you can drag or carry the grappled creature with you, but your speed is halved unless the creature is two or more sizes smaller than you.
Shoving a Creature
Using the Attack action, you can make a special melee attack to shove a creature, either to knock it prone or push it away from you. If you’re able to make multiple attacks with the Attack action, this attack replaces one of them.
The target must be no more than one size larger than you and must be within your reach. Instead of making an attack roll, you make an Athletics check contested by the target’s Athletics or Acrobatics check (the target chooses the ability to use). The check will be succeeded if the target is Incapacitated. If you win the contest, you either knock the target prone or push it 5 feet away from you.
Walls, trees, creatures, and other obstacles can provide cover during combat, making a target more difficult to harm. A target can benefit from cover only when an attack or other effect originates on the opposite side of the cover.
There are three degrees of cover. If a target is behind multiple sources of cover, only the most protective degree of cover applies; the degrees aren’t added together. For example, if a target is behind a creature that gives half cover and a tree trunk that gives three-quarters cover, the target has three-quarters cover.
Half Cover. A target with half cover has a +2 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws. A target has half cover if an obstacle blocks at least half of its body. The obstacle might be a low wall, a large piece of furniture, a narrow tree trunk, or a creature, whether that creature is an enemy or a friend.
Three-Quarters Cover. A target with three-quarters cover has a +5 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws. A target has three-quarters cover if about three-quarters of it are covered by an obstacle. The obstacle might be a portcullis, an arrow slit, or a thick tree trunk.
Full Cover. A target with total cover can’t be targeted directly by an attack or a spell, although some spells can reach such a target by including it in an area of effect. A target has total cover if it is completely concealed by an obstacle.
Damage and Healing
Injury and the risk of death are constant companions of those who explore fantasy gaming worlds. The thrust of a sword, a well-placed arrow, or a blast of flame from a elemental sphere spell all have the potential to damage, or even kill, the hardiest of creatures.
Hit points represent a combination of physical and mental durability, the will to live, and luck. Creatures with more hit points are more difficult to kill. Those with fewer hit points are more fragile.
A creature’s current hit points (usually just called hit points) can be any number from the creature’s hit point maximum down to 0. This number frequently changes as a creature takes damage or receives healing.
Whenever a creature takes damage, that damage is subtracted from its hit points. The loss of hit points has no effect on a creature’s capabilities until the creature drops to 0 hit points.
Each weapon, spell, and harmful monster ability specifies the damage it deals. You roll the damage die or dice, add any modifiers and apply the damage to your target. Magic weapons, special abilities, and other factors can grant a bonus to damage. With a penalty, it is possible to deal 0 damage, but never negative damage.
When attacking with a weapon, you add your ability modifier — the same modifier used for the attack roll — to the damage. A spell tells you which dice to roll for damage and whether to add any modifiers.
If a spell or other effect deals damage to more than one target at the same time, roll the damage once for all of them. For example, when an Arcane casts elemental sphere or an Acolyte casts elemental strike, the spell’s damage is rolled once for all creatures caught in the blast.
When you score a critical hit, you get to roll extra dice for the attack’s damage against the target. Roll all of the attack’s damage dice twice and add them together. Then add any relevant modifiers as normal. To speed up play, you can roll all the damage dice at once.
For example, if you score a critical hit with a dagger, roll 2d4 for the damage, rather than 1d4, and then add your relevant ability modifier. If the attack involves other damage dice, such as from the rogue’s Sneak Attack feature, you roll those dice twice as well.
Different attacks, damaging spells, and other harmful effects deal different types of damage. Damage types have no rules of their own, but other rules, such as damage resistance, rely on the types. The damage types follow, with examples to help a GM assign a damage type to a new effect.
Wherever you adventure, there will always be dangers of all kinds, from simple traps to an extremely elaborate deadly maze. All things that do not have a source of magic power will be a Simple Damage, whether they are Elemental or Physical.
Elemental damage is damage from sources in nature, for example, lightning that deals lightning damage, a flare that causes fire damage, or even the freezing cold of Freljord's winter. Physical damage, in turn, is damage caused by weapons, accouterments, punches, among other things.
Simple Elemental Damage
Acid. Any damage from a source capable of causing damage to skins and surfaces is considered Acid Damage, such as sulfuric acid or corrosive liquids.
Lightning. An electrical current can have several sources, from an electrical discharge from a poorly stabilized hextech core or even by lightning.
Force. Force is pure energy channeled in a way that does damage. Most of the effects that do force damage are magical, including magic missiles and spiritual weapon.
Cold. The infernal chill that radiates from the freezing breath of a Glacial Dragon, and even in severe Freljord weather, can cause you cold damage.
Fire. The flames of a campfire, a small match, or even the terrible breath weapon of an Infernal Dragon can be sources of fire damage.
Radiant. Radiant damage, caused by channeling spiritual energy into a reliquary stone or an extraplanar aid from a fairy being, is capable of causing radiant damage, burning corrupted flesh, and destroying those corrupted by the shadows.
Thunder. Sound vibrations at an extremely high frequency are capable of causing damage to a creature's body structure.
Poison. Poisons manufactured by renowned alchemists or toxic gases from the sump level can be good examples of poisonous damage.
Simple Physical Damage
Bludgeoning. Impact force attacks - hammers, falls, constriction, and the like - deal bludgeoning damage.
Slashing. Swords, axes, and claws of creatures deal sharp damage.
Piercing. Piercing and penetrating attacks, including spears and creature bites, inflict piercing damage.
As the name implies, magical damage comes from magical sources, whether natural or not, the effect of an Arcane's spell or the Ancient Dragon's breath.
In this category, we can see Spiritual Damage, something that can only come from a magical source, they are damages capable of affecting the mind and spirit of a creature, being able to alter both the mental constitution and its physical constitution of a creature.
Magical Elemental Damage
Antimonic. The magical variation of acid damage, able to erode even matter itself, this damage becomes something extremely dangerous for anything, whether it is alive or not.
Plasma. One of the magical variations of lightning damage, plasma damage is the purest magical energy, being formed from mana in its most primary form.
Runic. One of the magical variations of force damage, runic damage is most often related to the source of the most common magic in Runeterra, the Runes. Runes that deal no elemental damage tend to deal Runic damage.
Glacial. The magical variation of cold damage, glacial damage becomes much more potent, which can make a character feel chills deep in their bones and a feeling of partial freezing.
Incinerating. The magical variation of fire damage, incinerating damage, is very common in Fire Elementals of higher levels, being practically impossible to be erased by conventional means.
Luminary. One of the magical variations of radiant damage, luminary damage comes from the purest of lights, appearing with the full spectrum of colors by the extent it passes through, but it is also one of the rarest types of damage.
Lunar. One of the magical variations of radiant damage, lunar damage comes from moonlight, capable of inflicting a great deal of damage on unstoppable voidborn.
Solar. One of the magical variations of radiant damage, solar damage, when compared to the other radiant variations, is much more common to be found, this damage has much more effect on undead.
Vibrational. The magical variation of thunder damage, vibrational damage amplifies the very frequencies of a physical body or not and can easily reach incorporeal creatures.
Intoxicating. The magical variation of poison damage, not created by common mixtures, intoxicating damage is capable of destroying even the greatest of resistances.
Magical Physical Damage
Lacerating. The magical variation of slashing damage, the lacerating damage is not able to be healed by simple means, creating scars unable to be easily disguised.
Incisive. The magical variation of piercing damage, incisive damage can go through even the thickest shell or even the most rigid mineral.
Crushing. One of the magical variations of bludgeoning damage, crushing damage, brings with it a surreal force, almost as if three adult basilisks hit a single point at the same time.
Necrotic. Necrotic damage, capable of reaching an individual's own soul, unprepared creatures rarely manage to resist this deadly touch.
Psychic. A direct attack on your thoughts, psychic damage is something that only those with their most empowered minds are able to resist.
Shadow. A concept that few had the chance to understand without causing their own destruction, the void damage comes from extremely volatile energy, capable of easily disintegrating anything.
Disruptive. One of the magical variations of force damage, disruptive damage is something that is not from this realm, it comes from a place that wants to consume everything and everyone.
Gravitational. One of the magical variations of bludgeoning damage, gravitational damage is extremely rare, only found through extremely powerful creatures and beings capable of casting Celestial magic.
Cronal. One of the magical variations of force damage, cronal damage is almost impossible to be found unnaturally, cronal damage is something that everyone receives daily in their lives, it is responsible for the aging of a being, and when used by a caster, he is able to partially change the age of a living being or not.
Absorption, Immunity, Resistance, and Vulnerability
Some creatures and objects are too difficult or too easy to be harmed with certain types of damage. If a creature or object has resistance to a damage type, it is halved when affected by that damage type. If a creature or object is vulnerable to a damage type, the damage dealt is doubled.
Resistance and vulnerability are applied after adding all other damage modifiers. For example, a creature that has resistance to bludgeoning damage, and is hit by an attack that deals 25 points of that damage type. The creature is also within a magical aura, which reduces any and all damage by 5. The 25 damage is reduced by 5 and then halved, so the creature takes 10 damage.
Multiple resistance or vulnerability types that affect the same damage type only count as one type. For example, if a creature has fire damage resistance as well as resistance to all nonmagical damage, the damage dealt by a nonmagical fire is still reduced by half by the creature, not by three-quarters.
A damage type considered simple or magic changes this rule, a creature that has resistance to simple damage will not have resistance to its magic variation, but if the creature has resistance to magic variation, it will also have resistance to the simple damage. While a creature is vulnerable to a simple damage type, it will also be vulnerable to its magical variation.
For example, a creature with resistance to incinerating damage and vulnerability to cold damage will take half damage when taking fire or incinerating damage and take double damage when taking cold damage.
Besides that, there is also Immunity and Damage Absorption. When a creature has immunity to a certain damage type, it won't take any damage of that type, while if it has Absorption, instead of denying or taking only half damage, it will recover half the amount of damage taken from that specific damage type as hit points.
Simple and magic damage also influence this rule, if a creature has immunity or absorption to simple damage, it does not mean that it will have immunity or absorption to magic damage, however, if the creature has immunity or absorption to a magical variation, it will also have that immunity or absorption for simple damage.
For example, a creature with immunity to incinerating damage, will take no damage when taking fire or incinerating damage, the same goes for absorption.
Some factors like spells, abilities, curses, and other things can increase or decrease a creature's resistance scale. The resistance scale goes in the following order: vulnerability, normal damage, resistance, immunity, and absorption.
For example, if a creature that has immunity to a damage type has its resistance scale reduced by 2, it will now take normal damage.
No creature or object has true damage resistance, immunity, or absorption.
Unless it results in death, the damage is not permanent. Even death is reversible through powerful magic. Rest can restore a creature's hit points, and magical methods such as magic cure wounds or a healing potion can instantly remove damage.
When a creature receives healing of any kind, the recovered hit points are added to its total hit points. A creature’s hit points can’t exceed its hit point maximum, so any hit points regained in excess of this number are lost. For example, an Acolyte grants a Hunter 8 hit points of healing. If the Hunter has 14 current hit points and has a hit point maximum of 20, the Hunter regains 6 hit points from the Acolyte, not 8.
A creature that has died can’t regain hit points until spells, such as the revivify spell, have restored it to life.
Dropping to 0 Hit Points
When you drop to 0 hit points, you either die outright or fall unconscious, as explained in the following sections.
Massive damage can kill you instantly. When damage reduces you to 0 hit points, and there is damage remaining, you die if the remaining damage equals or exceeds your hit point maximum.
For example, a cleric with a maximum of 12 hit points currently has 6 hit points. If she takes 18 damage from an attack, she is reduced to 0 hit points, but 12 damage remains. Because the remaining damage equals her hit point maximum, the Acolyte dies.
If damage reduces you to 0 hit points and fails to kill you, you fall unconscious (see appendix A). This unconsciousness ends if you regain any hit points.
Death Saving Throws
Whenever you start your turn with 0 hit points, you must make a special saving throw, called a death saving throw, to determine whether you creep closer to death or hang onto life. Unlike other saving throws, this one isn’t tied to any ability score. You are in the hands of fate now, aided only by spells and features that improve your chances of succeeding on a saving throw
Roll a d20. If the roll is 10 or higher, you succeed. Otherwise, you fail. Success or failure has no effect by itself. On your third success, you become stable (see below). On your third failure, you die. The successes and failures don’t need to be consecutive; keep track of both until you collect three of a kind.
The number of both is reset to zero when you regain any hit points or become stable.
- Rolling 1 or 20. When you make a death saving throw and roll a 1 on the d20, it counts as two failures. If you roll a 20 on the d20, you regain 1 hit point.
- Damage at 0 Hit Points. If you take any damage while you have 0 hit points, you suffer a death saving throw failure. If the damage is from a critical hit, you suffer two failures instead. If the damage equals or exceeds your hit point maximum, you suffer instant death.
Stabilizing a Creature
The best way to save a creature with 0 hit points is to heal it. If healing is unavailable, the creature can at least be stabilized so that it isn’t killed by a failed death saving throw.
You can use your action to administer first aid to an unconscious creature and attempt to stabilize it, which requires a successful DC 10 Medicine check.
A stable creature doesn’t make death saving throws, even though it has 0 hit points, but it does remain unconscious. The creature stops being stable and must start making death saving throws again if it takes any damage. A stable creature that isn’t healed regains 1 hit point after 1d4 hours.
Creatures and Death
Most GMs have a creature die the instant it drops to 0 hit points, rather than having it fall unconscious and make death saving throws.
Mighty villains and special nonplayer characters are common exceptions; the GM might have them fall unconscious and follow the same rules as player characters.
Knocking a Creature Out
Sometimes an attacker wants to incapacitate a foe rather than deal a killing blow. When an attacker reduces a creature to 0 hit points with a melee attack, the attacker can knock the creature out. The attacker can make this choice the instant the damage is dealt. The creature falls unconscious and is stable.
Temporary Hit Points
Some spells and special abilities confer temporary hit points to a creature. Temporary hit points aren’t actual hit points; they are a buffer against damage, a pool of hit points that protect you from injury.
When you have temporary hit points and take damage, the temporary hit points are lost first, and any leftover damage carries over to your normal hit points. For example, if you have 5 temporary hit points and take 7 damage, you lose the temporary hit points and then take 2 damage.
Because temporary hit points are separate from your actual hit points, they can exceed your hit point maximum. A character can, therefore, be at full hit points and receive temporary hit points.
Healing can’t restore temporary hit points, and they can’t be added together. If you have temporary hit points and receive more of them, you decide whether to keep the ones you have or to gain the new ones. For example, if a spell grants you 12 temporary hit points when you already have 10, you can have 12 or 10, not 22.
If you have 0 hit points, receiving temporary hit points doesn’t restore you to consciousness or stabilize you. They can still absorb damage directed at you while you’re in that state, but only true healing can save you.
Unless a feature that grants you temporary hit points has a duration, they last until they’re depleted, or you finish a long rest.
A knight charging into battle on a warhorse, an Arcane casting spells from the back of a basilisk, or an Acolyte soaring through the sky on a silverwing all enjoy the benefits of speed and mobility that a mount can provide. A willing creature that is at least one size larger than you and that has an appropriate anatomy can serve as a mount, using the following rules.
Mounting and Dismounting
Once during your move, you can mount or dismount a creature that is within 5 feet of you. Doing so costs an amount of movement equal to half your speed. For example, if your speed is 30 feet, you must spend 15 feet of movement to mount a horse. Therefore, you can’t mount it if you don’t have 15 feet of movement left or if your speed is 0.
If an effect moves your mount against its will while you’re on it, you must succeed on a DC 10 Dexterity saving throw or fall off the mount, landing prone in a space within 5 feet of it. If you’re knocked prone while mounted, you must make the same saving throw. If your mount is knocked prone, you can use your reaction to dismount it as it falls and land on your feet. Otherwise, you are dismounted and fall prone in a space within 5 feet of it.
Controlling a Mount
While you’re mounted, you have two options. You either control the mount or allow it to act independently. Intelligent creatures act independently.
You can control a mount only if it has been trained to accept a rider. Domesticated horses, donkeys, and similar creatures are assumed to have such training. The initiative of a controlled mount changes to match yours when you mount it. It moves as you direct it, and it has only three action options: Dash, Disengage, and Dodge. A controlled mount can move and act even on the turn that you mount it.
An independent mount retains its place in the initiative order. Bearing a rider puts no restrictions on the actions the mount can take, and it moves and acts as it wishes. It might flee from combat, rush to attack and devour a badly injured foe, or otherwise act against your wishes. In either case, if the mount provokes an opportunity attack while you’re on it, the attacker can target you or the mount.
When adventurers pursue plundercrab back to their undersea homes, fight off sharks in an ancient shipwreck, or find themselves in a flooded dungeon room, they must fight in a challenging environment. Underwater the following rules apply
When making a melee weapon attack, a creature that doesn’t have a swimming speed (either natural or granted by magic) has disadvantage on the attack roll unless the weapon is a dagger, javelin, shortsword, spear, or trident.
A ranged weapon attack automatically misses a target beyond the weapon’s normal range. Even against a target within normal range, the attack roll has disadvantage unless the weapon is a crossbow, a net, or a weapon that is thrown like a javelin (including a spear, trident, or dart).
Creatures and objects that are fully immersed in water have resistance to fire damage.